Captain Marvel Adventures #22-46, by Otto Binder and CC Beck
In the 1940s, Captain Marvel was the most popular superhero in America, headlining Whiz Comics and Captain Marvel Adventures (which had the largest circulation of any comic book in America at the time of its publication), with spin-off features in Master Comics, Wow Comics, Mary Marvel, Captain Marvel Jr, Marvel Family, and Hoppy the Marvel Bunny. Fawcett Publications managed to find this success by mixing the action and superheroics of rival DC Comics's Superman with the charm and whimsy of fairy tales and children at play.
The most famous Captain Marvel story of the Golden Age is “The Monster Society of Evil,” one of the first long-running serial stories in comics (over two years' worth of issues) and the first appearance of a super-villain team made up of previously existing characters. In this story, the mysterious Mister Mind assembles the greatest foes of mankind (including Hitler and Tojo themselves) in an attempt to conquer the Earth.
I have to give this disclaimer, however: despite being some of the finest crafted comics of the Golden Age, Fawcett's Marvel Family publications are not without significant flaws, most notably archaic depictions of race. As was nearly ubiquitous in comics published during the Second World War, the Japanese are depicted as unforgivably hateful caricatures. Additionally, while better intentioned, depictions of black Americans (and, notably in an early chapter of “Monster Society,” native Africans) are also regrettably stereotyped and markedly outdated. While not every Golden Age Cap story features such stereotypes and caricatures, they are not uncommon, so caveat lector.
Many (but by no means all) of the stories featured on this list are reprinted in the Shazam!: A Celebration of 75 Years hardcover collection.
Best of the rest: “Sivana for Governor” (Captain Marvel Adventures #28), “Captain Marvel vs Spy Smasher” (Whiz Comics #16-18), “Introducing Captain Marvel” (Whiz Comics #2), “Captain Marvel Introduces Mary Marvel” (Captain Marvel Adventures #18), “The Mighty Marvels Join Forces!” (Marvel Family #1), “The Plot Against the Universe” (Captain Marvel Adventures #100), “Crusher of Crime” (Whiz Comics #20), “The Vengeful Four” (Whiz Comics #21), “The Origin of Captain Marvel Jr” (Whiz Comics #25, Master Comics #21-22), “The Curse of IBAC” (Captain Marvel Adventures #8), “The Talking Tiger” (Captain Marvel Adventures #79), “One Thousand Years from Now” (Whiz Comics #41-42)